Briefly about the stairs
The staircase today is not only the connecting link between the two levels of the room, but also the decoration of the interior. And the overall success of the creative process, whether it is redevelopment of an apartment, construction of a new one or reconstruction of an old country house, depends on how competently we approach the issue of choosing a staircase.
What calculations need to be done before designing the stairs, how to choose a place, type and material from which it will be made … You will learn about this and much more from our article
What should be the staircase? First of all – comfortable.
This requires the same and sufficient width of all marches and platforms, a certain number of rest areas for climbing and safety descending the stairs, and the number of steps in one march should not be more than 18. For safety reasons, sufficient resistance to existing forces, as well as good lighting, are necessary and fire safety.
Before you begin designing stairs and stairwells, you need to determine how much theoretically it requires space, regardless of its type and shape, and then determine the actual need for the staircase of data of type, shape and location.
When calculating take into account:
– The difference of levels, blocked by a ladder;
– The purpose of the stairs.
Based on this, you can determine the range of applicable steepness of the flight of stairs and the possible dimensions of the stairs, as well as the necessary width of the flight.
Sometimes there is a place with interconnected dimensions and proportions of the layout in the plan, necessary for placing the stairs.
Determining a place for a staircase or stairwell consists of the following steps:
1. Depending on the purpose of the stairs, determine its steepness.
2. Precisely determine the difference in levels, which must be covered by measuring it from floor to floor.
3. Determine the number of steps. This can be done by dividing the level difference by the expected number of steps, and from the number of riser heights obtained in this way, choosing those values that can be applied for this ladder.
The choice of the type of stairs, as we have said, is determined by the influence of many factors. The most important of these is the location of the opening in the ceiling. Direct single-flight staircases are usually very steep and are used extremely rarely. Turning ladders are usually installed along two walls. It is convenient to equip a storage room under them. In a spacious hall, a large swivel staircase with climbing steps is best facing. Due to their aesthetic properties and despite the rather sophisticated manufacturing technology, staircases with partially or fully curved marches have recently become increasingly popular.
According to the design of the stairs are divided as follows.
The main stairs (usually marching) can be on skewers or with bowstrings. If the beams on which the steps of the march rest, are located under them, then such beams are called kosoura, if on the side – then bowstrings. Kosoura and bowstrings rest on beams that support stairwells.
Recently, hanging stairs or ladders on Boltsy have become very widespread. The steps of these stairs are mounted on one side with racks to the handrail, and on the other side to the wall. Their main advantage is that they do not creak, since they do not connect wooden parts to each other.
Spiral staircases are usually made with a central pillar, which in this case carries the main load. However, there are spiral staircases with supporting bowstrings. Spiral staircases are most often installed in basements or attics, although modern materials and design make it possible to expose spiral staircases to the foreground. The diameter of the opening for convenience and safety should be less than 130 cm.
An indispensable attribute of all stairs is the fences that are built on the stairs for security purposes. Their optimum height is 90-110 cm.
The shape of balusters and railings varies depending on the stylistic orientation of the interior. In the modern interior, metal balusters and polyurethane railings are often used, which significantly reduces the cost of the stairs. Glass railing ceased to be a rarity.
By the type of material used, from which the supporting structures of the stairs are made, they can be conditionally divided into stone, wooden, metal and mixed stairs. In the manufacture of stone stairs, a wide range of materials is used, from concrete to marble. For the manufacture of wooden stairs can be used coniferous wood (pine, larch, cedar), oak or beech, walnut or cherry, etc. The palette of materials for metal stairs is also very diverse. Due to the wide penetration into the construction of advanced technologies for their production.